The current Nicktoons logo, used since 2009.
This article is about the cartoons themselves. For the cable channel, see Nicktoons (channel).

A 1991 promo for the premiere of the first three Nicktoons.

We're Nicktoons!.PNG

Nicktoons is a franchise of television cartoon shows that are produced and aired by Nickelodeon.

Prior to 1991, Nickelodeon had aired foreign-made animated films since its inception. It first experimented with its own animated programming in 1980, when the channel's first president Geraldine Laybourne commissioned a series with animated elements, Video Comic Book, and produced a fully-animated show titled Video Dream Theatre. The second series was left unaired, and throughout the next decade, animated fare on Nickelodeon comprised mostly of reruns of other companies' cartoons.

The idea for another attempt at original animated shows on the network began in the late 1980s. Starting in 1989, profits from other programs funded "Nicktoons", with the first three cartoons (Doug, Rugrats and The Ren & Stimpy Show) premiering on Sunday, August 11, 1991. This format was repeated every Sunday, eventually leading to the production of more Nicktoons at Nickelodeon Animation Studio's first facility in California.

1999 marked the premiere of SpongeBob SquarePants, which would later become the longest-running Nicktoon. During the same year, Nickelodeon opened a second animation facility in New York City. A spin-off channel named after Nicktoons was established on May 1, 2002.

Promo for Nick Animation's versions of TMNT and Winx Club

In the early 2010s, Nickelodeon Animation Studio began to produce Nicktoons based on pre-existing franchises that had been purchased by Viacom: Winx Club (in 2011) and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (in 2012). Both shows had unprecedentedly high budgets for Nicktoons, and an extensive team of Nickelodeon veterans grouped to work on Winx Club.

The Nicktoons brand also extends to other media, such as video games featuring the Nicktoon characters (including the Nicktoons Unite! series). Since 2001, the official slogan for the brand has been "[They're] Not just cartoons, they're Nicktoons".

History

Pinwheel, the first Nickelodeon series which began in 1977, was formatted as an hour-long program with two forms of segments: original content with its cast of puppet and human characters, and showcases of foreign-made short films. Many of these films were animated cartoons dating back to the 1950s. These were the first form of animated content on what would become Nickelodeon.[1]

For its first years, Nickelodeon continued to play foreign-made cartoons in a similar fashion as part of two anthology series called First Row Features and Special Delivery. In 1980, the channel aired its first original series that was not live-action: Video Comic Book. It could best be described as a "motion comic" that consisted of illustrated scenes with animated elements, like speech bubbles and moving backgrounds.[2]

Nickelodeon's first attempt at a fully-animated show occurred later in 1980, when Geraldine Laybourne produced test pilots for Video Dream Theatre. It holds the title of Nickelodeon's first true cartoon. However, it was left unaired when test audiences did not give the reactions Laybourne wanted.[3]

Throughout the 1980s, the amount of acquired animated shows on Nickelodeon increased, with reruns of cartoons and anime such as Bananaman, Danger Mouse, The Little Prince, and The Mysterious Cities of Gold.[4] Blocks dedicated to animated programming such as Looney Tunes on Nickelodeon ran from the mid-1980s well into the late 1990s. When Nick Jr. premiered on Nickelodeon as a block in January 1988, much of its shows were imported cartoons.

The original Nicktoons logo.

Profits from Nickelodeon's expanding audience at the time helped it fund its own original cartoons: the first three "Nicktoons", Doug, Rugrats and The Ren & Stimpy Show. Nickelodeon executive Vanessa Coffey discovered all three of these programs after traveling to Los Angeles in 1988. Her goal was to find "three projects that looked completely different" in order to counter the homogeneous, toy-centric cartoons of the 1980s.[5]

Nickelodeon's animation production studio was originally known as Games Animation, located in Studio City, California. In 1993, Nickelodeon approached Joe Murray to create its first fully original in-house series: Rocko's Modern Life.[6] In March 1998, the then-new Nickelodeon Animation Studio was opened in Burbank, California.[7] In September 1999, Nickelodeon opened a digital animation studio in Manhattan, which took over animation of Nick Jr. series such as Blue's Clues.[8]

Throughout the 1990s, Nickelodeon continued with its "experimental" approach to animation. Hey Arnold! creator Craig Bartlett explained that the network gradually shifted away from creator-driven content during the later years of Herb Scannell's tenure as Nick president. In his opinion, the animation department "grew more and more corporate, and less like you had a personal touch".[9]

In May 2002, Nicktoons TV, a sister channel named after Nicktoons, was created.

In 2016, Nickelodeon moved its animation facilities to a different building in Burbank that houses both animated and live-action properties.

List of Nicktoons

No. Image Title Premiere date End date Seasons Episodes Co-productions
1
Icon-Doug.jpg
Doug August 11, 1991 January 2, 1994 4[note 1] 52 Jumbo Pictures
Ellipse Programmé
2
Icon-Rugrats.jpg
Rugrats August 11, 1991 August 1, 2004 9 172 Klasky-Csupo
3
Icon-Ren-&-Stimpy.jpg
The Ren & Stimpy Show August 11, 1991 October 20, 1996 5 52 Spumco
4
Icon-Rocko's-Modern-Life.jpg
Rocko's Modern Life September 18, 1993 November 24, 1996 4 52 Joe Murray Productions
5
Icon-Aaahh!!!-Real-Monsters.jpg
Aaahh!!! Real Monsters October 29, 1994 December 6, 1997 4 52 Klasky-Csupo
6
Icon-Hey-Arnold!.jpg
Hey Arnold! October 7, 1996 June 8, 2004 5 100 Snee-Oosh
7
Icon-The-Angry-Beavers.jpg
The Angry Beavers April 19, 1997 August 27, 2006 4 63 Gunther-Wahl Productions
8
Icon-CatDog.jpg
CatDog April 4, 1998 June 15, 2005 4 68 Peter Hannan Productions
9
Icon-The-Wild-Thornberrys.jpg
The Wild Thornberrys September 1, 1998 June 11, 2004 5 91 Klasky-Csupo
10
Icon-SpongeBob-SquarePants.jpg
SpongeBob SquarePants May 1, 1999 present 13 280 United Plankton Pictures
11
Icon-Rocket-Power.jpg
Rocket Power August 16, 1999 July 30, 2004 3 71 Anvision
Klasky Csupo
12
Icon-As-Told-by-Ginger.jpg
As Told by Ginger October 25, 2000 November 14, 2006 3 60 Klasky-Csupo
13
Icon-The-Fairly-OddParents.jpg
The Fairly OddParents March 30, 2001 July 26, 2017 10 172 Frederator Studios
Billionfold, Inc.
14
Icon-Invader-Zim.jpg
Invader Zim March 30, 2001 August 19, 2006 2 27 N/A
15
Icon-ChalkZone.jpg
ChalkZone March 22, 2002 August 23, 2008 4 40 Frederator Studios
16
Icon-Jimmy-Neutron.jpg
The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron, Boy Genius July 20, 2002 November 25, 2006 3 64 O Entertainment
DNA Productions
17
Icon-All-Grown-Up!.jpg
All Grown Up! April 12, 2003 August 17, 2008 5 55 Klasky-Csupo
18
Icon-My-Life-as-a-Teenage-Robot.jpg
My Life as a Teenage Robot August 1, 2003 May 2, 2009 3 40 Frederator Studios
19
Icon-Danny-Phantom.jpg
Danny Phantom April 3, 2004 August 24, 2007 3 53 Billionfold, Inc.
20
Icon-Avatar-The-Last-Airbender.jpg
Avatar: The Last Airbender February 21, 2005 July 19, 2008 3 61 N/A
21
Icon-Catscratch.jpg
Catscratch July 9, 2005 February 10, 2007 1 20 N/A
22
Icon-The-X's.jpg
The X's November 25, 2005 December 13, 2006 1 20 N/A
23
Icon-El-Tigre.jpg
El Tigre: The Adventures of Manny Rivera February 19, 2007 September 13, 2008 1 26 Mexopolis, Inc.
24
Icon-Tak-and-the-Power-of-Juju.jpg
Tak and the Power of Juju August 31, 2007 January 24, 2009 1 26 THQ
25
Icon-Back-at-the-Barnyard.jpg
Back at the Barnyard September 29, 2007 November 12, 2011 2 52 O Entertainment
26
Icon-The-Mighty-B.jpg
The Mighty B! April 26, 2008 June 18, 2011 2 40 Paper Kite Productions
Polka Dot Pictures
27
Icon-Fanboy-&-Chum-Chum.jpg
Fanboy & Chum Chum October 12, 2009 July 12, 2014 2 52 Frederator Studios
28
Icon-Planet-Sheen.jpg
Planet Sheen October 2, 2010 February 15, 2013 1 26 O Entertainment
29
Icon-TUFF-Puppy.jpg
T.U.F.F. Puppy October 2, 2010 April 4, 2015 3 60 Billionfold, Inc.
30
Icon-Winx-Club.jpg
Winx Club

[note 2]

June 27, 2011 April 10, 2016 3[note 3] 78 Rainbow SpA (co-owned by Viacom)
31
Icon-The-Legend-of-Korra.jpg
The Legend of Korra April 14, 2012 December 19, 2014 4 52 Ginormous Madman Productions
32
Icon-Robot-and-Monster.jpg
Robot and Monster August 4, 2012 February 14, 2015[10] 1 26 Smasho! Productions
Lowbar Productions
33
Icon-Teenage-Mutant-Ninja-Turtles.jpg
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles

[note 4]

September 28, 2012 November 12, 2017 5 124 Lowbar Productions
34
Icon-Sanjay-and-Craig.jpg
Sanjay and Craig May 25, 2013 July 29, 2016 3 60 Forest City Rockers
35
Icon-Breadwinners.jpg
Breadwinners February 17, 2014 September 12, 2016 2 40 N/A
36
Icon-Harvey-Beaks.jpg
Harvey Beaks March 28, 2015 December 29, 2017 2 52 N/A
37
Icon-Pig-Goat-Banana-Cricket.jpg
Pig Goat Banana Cricket July 16, 2015 August 11, 2018 2 40 N/A
38
Icon-The-Loud-House.jpg
The Loud House May 2, 2016 present 6 130

[11]

Jam Filled Entertainment
39
Icon-Bunsen-is-a-Beast.jpg
Bunsen Is a Beast January 16, 2017 February 10, 2018 1 26 Billionfold, Inc.
40
Icon-Welcome-to-the-Wayne.jpg
Welcome to the Wayne

[12]

July 24, 2017 May 31, 2019 2 30 Yowza! Animation
41
Icon-The-Adventures-of-Kid-Danger.jpg
The Adventures of Kid Danger January 15, 2018 June 14, 2018 1 12 Powerhouse Animation
Schneider's Bakery
42
Icon-Rise-of-the-TMNT.jpg
Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles

[note 4]

July 20, 2018 August 7, 2020 2 39

[13]

Flying Bark Productions
43
Icon-Pinky-Malinky.jpg
Pinky Malinky

[note 5]

January 1, 2019 July 17, 2019 3 60 Jam Filled Entertainment
44
Icon-The-Casagrandes.jpg
The Casagrandes October 14, 2019 present 2 40 Jam Filled Entertainment
45
Icon-It's-Pony.jpg
It's Pony January 18, 2020 present 2 40[14] Blue-Zoo Animation Studio
46
Icon-Glitch-Techs.jpg
Glitch Techs

[note 5]

February 21, 2020 present 2 19 Top Draw Animation
47
Kamp Koral crop.jpg
Kamp Koral, SpongeBob's Under Years[note 6] March 4, 2021 present 1 13 United Plankton Pictures

Upcoming Nicktoons

Image Title Premiere date Ref(s)
Rugrats new 2021.png
Rugrats (2021 TV series)[note 7] May 27, 2021 [15]
Middlemost post logo.png
Middlemost Post July 2021 [16]
The Patrick Star Show.png
The Patrick Star Show July 2021 [17]
No Image.png
Big Nate September 2021
Star Trek Prodigy.jpeg
Star Trek: Prodigy[note 6] 2021 [18]
No Image.png
Transformers 2022 [19]
No Image.png
Monster High 2022 [20]
Wonder Park logo.png
Adventures in Wonder Park TBA [13]
No Image.png
Man of the House TBA
No Image.png
Meet the Voxels TBA
No Image.png
Garfield TBA
No Image.png
Real Pigeons Fight Crime TBA [21]
No Image.png
Phoebe and Her Unicorn TBA [22]

Animation showcases

The following three shows are sometimes excluded from Nickelodeon's lists of Nicktoons. Some shows that were spawned from these showcases were picked up by other networks, such as the KaBlam! segment Angela Anaconda (greenlit by Teletoon and Fox Kids) and the Random! Cartoons pilot "Adventure Time" (greenlit by Cartoon Network).

Image Title Premiere date End date Seasons Episodes Co-productions
Icon-KaBlam!.jpg
KaBlam! October 11, 1996 January 22, 2000 4 48 Flying Mallet Inc.
1547765 373490af11 o.png
Oh Yeah! Cartoons July 19, 1998 2002 3 34 Frederator Studios
Random-Cartoons-Icon.jpeg
Random! Cartoons

[note 8]

December 6, 2008 December 20, 2009 1 13 Frederator Studios

DreamWorks co-productions

The following shows were spun off from DreamWorks Animation's film franchises. While they were co-produced by Nickelodeon Animation Studio and Viacom owns half of each show's copyright, Nickelodeon has excluded them from their Nicktoon compilations since 2016, when DreamWorks was purchased by NBCUniversal and stopped licensing their characters to Nick.

Logo Title Premiere date End date Seasons Episodes
The Penguins of Madagascar Icon.jpeg
The Penguins of Madagascar November 28, 2008 January 4, 2016 3 80
Kung fu panda legends of awesomeness icon.png
Kung Fu Panda: Legends of Awesomeness September 19, 2011 June 29, 2016 3 80
Monsters vs. aliens icon.jpeg
Monsters vs. Aliens March 23, 2013 February 8, 2014 1 26

Miniseries

The following miniseries were produced by Nick Animation, but they were never green-lit for full seasons.

Logo Title Premiere date End date Episodes Co-productions
Icon-Making-Fiends.jpg
Making Fiends[note 8] October 4, 2008 November 1, 2008 6 N/A
Rugrats Pre-School Daze poster.jpeg
Rugrats Pre-School Daze November 16, 2008 December 7, 2008 4 Klasky Csupo
Middle School Moguls Icon.jpeg
Middle School Moguls September 2, 2019 September 29, 2019 4 Gengirl Media, Inc.

Acquired shows

Please see Non-original shows broadcast by Nickelodeon for a list of cartoons that have aired on a Nick channel but were not produced by Nickelodeon.

Movies based on Nicktoons

Theatrical films

Image Title Release date Co-production
TheRugratsMoviePoster.jpg
The Rugrats Movie November 20, 1998 Paramount Pictures/Klasky Csupo
Rugrats In Paris Poster.jpg
Rugrats in Paris: The Movie November 17, 2000
Jimmy Neutron Boy Genius film.jpg
Jimmy Neutron, Boy Genius December 21, 2001 Paramount Pictures/O Entertainment
Hey arnold the movie xlg.jpg
Hey Arnold!: The Movie June 28, 2002 Paramount Pictures/Snee-Oosh/Nickelodeon Animation Studios
Wild thornberrys movie ver2.jpg
The Wild Thornberrys Movie December 20, 2002 Paramount Pictures/Klasky Csupo
Rugrats Go Wild Poster.jpg
Rugrats Go Wild June 13, 2003
SpongebobMoviePoster.jpg
The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie November 19, 2004 Paramount Pictures/United Plankton Pictures
Barnyard ver2.jpg
Barnyard August 4, 2006 Paramount Pictures/O Entertainment
The Last Airbender Poster.png
The Last Airbender July 1, 2010 Paramount Pictures/Blinding Edge Pictures
TSBSPMSOOW Poster 2.jpg
The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water February 6, 2015 Paramount Pictures/Paramount Animation/United Plankton Pictures
Wonder Park Poster.jpg
Wonder Park March 15, 2019 Paramount Animantion/Ilion Animation Studios
Sponge on the Run poster.jpg
The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge on the Run August 14, 2020 Paramount Pictures/Paramount Animation/United Plankton Pictures
No Image.png
Untitled animated Avatar movie unknown Avatar Studios


Direct-to-video and made-for-TV films

Image Title Release date Co-production
The Jimmy Timmy Power Hour Poster.jpg
Jimmy Timmy Power Hour May 7, 2004 O Entertainment/DNA Productions/Frederator Studios
JimmyTimmyPowerHour2DVD.jpg
Jimmy Timmy Power Hour 2: When Nerds Collide! January 16, 2006
JimmyTimmyPowerHour3DVD.jpg
Jimmy Timmy Power Hour 3: The Jerkinators! July 21, 2006
TalesFromTheCrib SnowWhite DVD.jpg
Rugrats Tales from the Crib: Snow White September 17, 2005 Paramount Home Entertainment/Klasky Csupo
TalesFromTheCrib JackAndTheBeanstalk DVD.jpg
Rugrats Tales from the Crib: Three Jacks and a Beanstalk September 5, 2006
FOP-Movie-poster.jpg
A Fairly Odd Movie: Grow Up, Timmy Turner! July 9, 2011 Pacific Bay Entertainment/Frederator Studios/Billionfold, Inc.
A Fairly Odd Christmas poster.jpg
A Fairly Odd Christmas November 29, 2012
AFairlyOddSummerDVD.jpg
A Fairly Odd Summer August 2, 2014
TMNT Half-Shell Heroes Blast to the Past picture.jpg
Half-Shell Heroes: Blast to the Past November 22, 2015 Nickelodeon Animation Studios
JungleMoviePoster.png
Hey Arnold!: The Jungle Movie November 24, 2017 Snee-Oosh

Television on net films

Image Title Release date Co-production
Rocko’s Modern Life Static Cling poster 2.jpg
Rocko's Modern Life: Static Cling August 9, 2019 Joe Murray Productions
Invader Zim Enter the Florpus 2019 poster.jpg
Invader Zim: Enter the Florpus August 16, 2019 N/A

Upcoming direct-to-video and made-for-TV films

Image Title Release date Co-production Source
No Image.png
The Loud House: A Very Loud Christmas! November 2021 N/A [23]

Upcoming television on net films

Image Title Release date Co-production Source
The Loud House Movie logo.png
The Loud House Movie 2021 Jam Filled Entertainment [24][25]
No Image.png
Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: The Movie 2021 Flying Bark Productions [24]

Trivia

  • Since 2004, new Nicktoons have often been moved from the main Nick channel to a sister network after getting cancelled. 2017 holds the record for the most shows being moved to the Nicktoons channel, with four: The Fairly OddParents, Harvey Beaks, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and Bunsen is a Beast.
    • Not including preschool shows, Winx Club is the only Viacom-copyrighted show to move to the Nick Jr. Channel instead of NickToons.
    • Many episodes of the fifth season of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles were burned off on NickToons in mid-2017, but the show returned to Nick to premiere its three-part finale on November 12, 2017.
  • SpongeBob SquarePants holds the record for longest-running Nicktoon, both in number of episodes and years running.
    • The Rugrats Pre-School Daze miniseries holds the record for shortest-lived Nicktoon (18 days in the U.S. and just 5 in the United Kingdom).
  • The Fairly OddParents was the first Nicktoon to reach ten seasons, even before SpongeBob SquarePants.
  • The ninth season of SpongeBob SquarePants took almost five years to air all 26 episodes, lasting from July 21, 2012 to February 20, 2017. This is the longest time a single Nicktoon season has lasted on the main Nickelodeon channel.
  • Several Nicktoons have never finished airing on the main Nickelodeon network. As an example, two episodes of As Told by Ginger remain unaired in the United States as of 2019.
  • In North America, almost all Nicktoons are distributed on home video by Paramount, which has been a subsidiary of Nickelodeon's parent company Viacom since 1994.
  • Most Nicktoons are majority-produced in the United States with their final animation processes outsourced to service companies in South Korea. Exceptions include:
    • The Nickelodeon episodes of Doug, co-produced with the French studio Ellipse Programmé (or Ellipsanime).
    • The Nickelodeon episodes of Winx Club, co-produced by Nickelodeon Animation Studio and their Italian sister company (through Viacom), Rainbow Group. Nick Animation handled script writing, voice recording, animation approval, and some of the music production while coordinating with the Italian team.
  • As it is technically a live-action show, Mr. Meaty has not been recognized as an official Nicktoon. It is still a ViacomCBS-owned production.
  • When Nickelodeon repackaged the Action League Now! shorts into a half-hour block, the "new" show was occasionally advertised among the full-fledged Nicktoons. The package show is otherwise excluded from all of Nick's Nicktoon lists, and it was not produced by Nick Animation.
  • To date, Rugrats is the only Nicktoon (or Nickelodeon franchise, for that matter) to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Brand logos

See also

References

  1. "Finding Ni Hao" (Pinwheel excerpt) (April 2008).
  2. Nickelodeon Nation: The History, Politics, and Economics of America's Only TV Channel for Kids (February 2004).
  3. The Washington Post: The kids' channel that 'Double Dares' to be different (September 25, 1988).
  4. Nickelodeon and Consumer Citizenship (2007).
  5. Nicktoons 25th anniversary oral history of Rugrats, Doug, Ren & Stimpy (August 11, 2016).
  6. Makin' Toons: Inside the Most Popular Animated TV Shows and Movies (2003).
  7. Studio Tour: Nicktoons (April 1998).
  8. David Kilmer (September 22, 1999). Nickelodeon opens animation studio in New York. Animation World Network.
  9. Nickelodeon grew up and blew up in 1996 (August 9, 2016).
  10. TheFutonCritic: Robot and Monster.
  11. Welcome to our new series of crew profiles (November 18, 2015).
  12. Nick Greenlights ‘Welcome to the Wayne,’ First TV Series Based On Digital Series (April 23, 2015).
  13. 13.0 13.1 Nickelodeon Upfront 2017 – Nickandmore!.
  14. [1]
  15. 'Rugrats' Revived at Viacom With New Nickelodeon Series, Feature Film (July 16, 2018).
  16. Nickelodeon's 'Middlemost Post' Gets Greenlight, Starts Production as Studio's Artists Work From Home Due to Pandemic.
  17. https://www.animationmagazine.net/tv/spongebob-spin-off-patrick-star-show-in-the-works/
  18. https://comicbook.com/startrek/news/star-trek-prodigy-nickelodeon-animated-series-comic-con/?
  19. https://deadline.com/2021/02/nickelodeon-orders-transformers-animated-comedy-series-hasbro-franchise-1234700661/
  20. http://thefutoncritic.com/news/2021/02/23/mattel-television-and-nickelodeon-announce-plans-to-produce-an-animated-series-and-live-action-television-movie-musical-based-on-iconic-monster-high-franchise-387401/20210223nickelodeon01/
  21. http://thefutoncritic.com/news/2020/07/07/nickelodeon-inks-multiplatform-deal-with-james-corden-and-ben-winston-to-produce-animated-movie-and-tv-series-based-on-childrens-book-real-pigeons-fight-crime-593302/20200707nickelodeon02/
  22. https://deadline.com/2020/06/nickelodeon-phoebe-and-her-unicorn-options-franchise-1202963565/
  23. 'SpongeBob' Prequel, Live-Action 'Loud House' Movie Set at Nickelodeon.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Nickelodeon Sets 'Loud House', 'Ninja Turtles' Animated Films at Netflix.
  25. 'Loud House' Ratings Drive Graphic Novel Sales

Notes

  1. Nickelodeon produced seasons 1–4. In 1996, Disney acquired the series and produced three additional seasons.
  2. Nickelodeon Animation Studio produced the Winx Club revival series, made up of seasons 5–7, in co-development with Rainbow. ViacomCBS owns the copyright to these seasons and co-owns the Rainbow studio itself.
  3. Seasons 5–7 (three seasons in total) were produced at Nickelodeon Animation Studio.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Nickelodeon acquired the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise in 2009. ViacomCBS owns the copyright to both the 2012 series and Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, but not the original 1987 series or The Next Mutation.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Premiered exclusively on Netflix.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Premiered on Paramount+. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "paramount+" defined multiple times with different content
  7. Premiering on Paramount+.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Premiered exclusively on Nicktoons Network.
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